The IRS allows one tax-free rollover of a 529 account per beneficiary in a 12-month period. If you violate the 12-month rule, the transaction is considered a non-qualified distribution and subject to federal income tax, not to mention a 10% penalty on the earnings.
There are numerous reasons for considering a change in 529 plans. For example, you:
- may prefer a plan with lower investment management fees;
- you may prefer a plan with more robust investment options;
- you may relocate to a state with more favorable tax benefits for contributions to a 529 college savings plan;
- you may want to consolidate your 529 plan assets;
- you may want to switch from your state’s 529 prepaid tuition plan to your state’s 529 college savings plan or vice-versa; or
- the current beneficiary of your plan may decide not to pursue higher education, and you may decide to transfer funds to the new beneficiary.
Read more: When should you switch 529 plans?
The account owner can roll over assets from one 529 plan into another 529 plan. If a rollover satisfies the following conditions, you will not incur any tax consequences:
- You are permitted only one rollover to another 529 plan per twelve-month period for the same beneficiary.
- You can roll over a 529 plan to the beneficiary’s family member. There is no restriction on the number of times this can occur in any twelve-month period. Please refer to IRS Publication 970 for clarity regarding the definition of a family member (see details below).
- The rollover must occur within 60 days of the withdrawal for the distribution not to be taxable.
- You can change the designated beneficiary of an existing 529 plan, provided that the new or updated beneficiary is a family member of the old or previous beneficiary.
Note that transfers between siblings are not considered rollovers, so moving around within an existing 529 plan does not affect your ability to pursue a rollover.
Read more: How to transfer 529 plan funds to a sibling
Most 529 savings plans facilitate direct transfers to a new account without liquidating the plan assets and mailing you a check. Direct transfers must be completed within 60 days to avoid any tax consequences.
Some states may assess a recapture tax on past tax deductions for out-of-state rollovers. In other words, when you roll over assets in another state’s plan, you may be required to pay the state income tax on any contributions for which you previously received a deduction.
- Son, daughter, stepchild, foster child, adopted child, or a descendant
- Son-in-law, daughter-in-law
- Siblings or step-siblings
- Brother-in-law, sister-in-law
- Father-in-law, mother-in-law
- Father or mother or ancestor of either stepmother, stepfather
- Aunt, uncle, or their spouse
- Niece, nephew, or their spouse
- First cousin or their spouse