Compare savings options
Summarizes and compares the features of 529 plans, 529 ABLE plans, ESAs, UTMAs, IRAs, and education savings bonds.
|YEAR 2022 RULES||529 Plan||Coverdell Education Savings Accounts||UGMA/UTMA|
|Federal Income Tax||Non-deductible contributions; withdrawn earnings excluded from income to extent of qualified higher education expenses||Non-deductible contributions; withdrawn earnings excluded from income to extent of qualified higher education expenses and qualified K-12 expenses also excluded||Earnings and gains taxed to minor; first $1,100 of unearned income is tax exempt; unearned income over $2,200 for certain children under age 24 is taxed at rates for estates and trusts||Federal Gift Tax Treatment||Contributions treated as completed gifts; apply $16,000 annual exclusion, or up to $80,000 with 5-year election||Contributions treated as completed gifts; apply $16,000 annual exclusion||Transfers treated as completed gift; apply $16,000 annual gift exclusion||Federal Estate Tax Treatment||Value removed from donor's gross estate; partial inclusion for death during a 5-year election period||Value removed from donor's gross estate||Value removed from donor's gross estate unless donor remains as custodian||Maximum Investment||Established by the program; many in excess of $400,000 per beneficiary||$2,000 per beneficiary per year combined from all sources||No limit||Qualified Expenses||College tuition, fees, books, computers and related equipment, supplies, special needs; room and board for minimum half-time students. Up to $10,000 in tuition expenses for K-12 schools. Up to $10,000 in student loan repayment.||Tuition, fees, books, supplies, equipment, special needs; room & board for min. half- time students; additional types of K-12 expenses||College tuition, fees, books, computers and related equipment, supplies, special needs; room and board for minimum half-time students. Up to $10,000 in tuition expenses for K-12 schools. Up to $10,000 in student loan repayment.||Able to Change Beneficiary||Yes, to another member of the beneficiary's family||Yes, to another member of the beneficiary's family||No; represents an irrevocable gift to the child||Time/Age Restrictions||None unless imposed by the program||Contributions before beneficiary reaches age 18; use of account by age 30||Custodianship terminates when minor reaches age established under state law (generally 18 or 21)||Income Restrictions||None||Contributions phase out for incomes between $190,000 and $220,000 (joint filers) or $95,000 and $110,000 (single filers). No annual inflation adjustment||None||Federal Financial Aid||Counted as asset of parent if owner is parent or dependent student||Counted as asset of parent if owner is parent or dependent student||Counted as student's asset||Investments||Menu of investment strategies as developed by the program||Broad range of securities and certain other investments||As permitted under state laws||Use for Nonqualifying Expenses||Withdrawn earnings subject to federal tax and 10% penalty||Withdrawn earnings subject to federal tax and 10% penalty||Funds must be used for benefit of the minor|